The development of printing technology in half a century 1.5

Development of Printing> Section 5 Development of Lithography

In plain and colorful prints, plain printed products occupy a considerable amount of weight. From advertising posters and movie posters everywhere, to grand and magnificent albums, and even to the calendars and villain books of households, most of them are printed products.

Modern flat printing is commonly known as offset printing. Offset printing is indirect printing, which evolved from direct printing of lithographs.

One, from lithography to indirect lithography

1. The lithograph of the fifties

In accordance with the relative structure of the two parts of the printing plate on the graphic area and the blank area, the lithography, indirect plain printing, and the Feilai printing are collectively referred to as plain printing. Before the 1950s, there were not many typographical printers in printing factories in major cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin. Lithographic printing was still dominated by lithographs. For example: In Beijing in 1949, there were 280 large and small printing companies, 149 various types of printers, only 7 flat printers, and 136 large and small lithographic printers. Large stone printers use electric power drag, and small stone printers rely entirely on human shaking. When printing, use a towel to wet the surface of the stone plate, and then use an ink roller to apply the ink manually. After the paper is laid, close the bearing plate, shake the handle on the big round wheel, and drive the lithographic plate to move under pressure to make the ink turn. Printed on paper, finally lifted the pressure plate, uncovered paper to complete the printing. All of these operations rely on manual work, which leads to great physical exertion and low production efficiency. Each lithograph machine produces approximately 500 impressions per day. Even if this backward lithographic printing machine is not a lot, for example, there are only a few units in Xining City, Qinghai Province, only printing some printed materials such as notices.

2. Domestic offset press gradually replaced the lithographic press

Around the 1950s, the Shanghai Amway Machinery Factory (later renamed China's Yangtze Machine Factory) successively created more than 200 pairs of open-faced paper-fed offset printers, which enabled the domestic hand-to-paper offset printers to gradually replace the lithographic presses in the printing plants. Later, the "Amway machines" and "Yangtze machines" that people said were the ones made in the 1950s.

The typographer completely removed the bulky stone plate, used thin and light zinc skin as the printing plate, the plate printing device and the imprinting device were all roller type, which greatly improved the printing speed; the indirect printing with the rubber roller was beneficial to the improvement. Plate printing force and print quality. Replacing a bulky lithograph with a paper offset printer is undoubtedly a major advance in lithography.

In the late 1950s, we used domestic hand-to-paper offset printers to print many exquisite albums, such as the large-scale album "China" and "Dr. Sukarno, the President of the Republic of Indonesia." An outstanding masterpiece of plain printing technology in a period of time.

Automatic Printing Machine> Second, domestic automatic printing machine

Although the "Amway machine" and the "Yangtze machine" replaced the lithograph machine, it still had to hand-feed the paper. The operator stands next to the machine and is engrossed in one paper feed to the machine, giving 2,500 papers per hour. The exhaustion of the work is self-evident.

In 1958 and 1959, two experience exchange conferences for printing technology innovation were held in Shanghai, which greatly stimulated the enthusiasm of the printing workers for technological innovation and effectively promoted the technical innovation activities of printing houses.

1. The rise of "soil automatic" typograph

Driven by the new wave of technological advancement in the 1950s, after the 1960s, technological innovation continued to develop in depth. From the "small reforms of the 50's," to the technical transformation of complete machines or large parts, the paper was hand-pulled. One example is the conversion of a printer into "autoclave." In order to reduce the exertion of the printing workers and improve the production efficiency, the printing and repairing departments of some printing plants in Shanghai and Beijing took the lead in “handing out” paper offset printers, equipped them with automatic feeders, and changed manual feeding to automatic feeding. paper. Shiyin prints 70 to 80 sheets per hour, hand-to-paper printers print 2,500 sheets per hour, and "soil automatically" prints more than 4,000 sheets per hour. At that time, the printing machinery manufacturer had not been able to provide the printing plant with an adequate number of automatic stencil printers. By using a technological innovation, the hand-to-paper stencil printer was changed to an automatic stencil printer. This was an improvement in labor. An effective method of productivity. In less than a few years, the original hand-to-paper printers were almost transformed into automatic printers. In the 1960s, "automated soil" played a pivotal role in lithography.

2. Domestic automatic printing machine

After entering the 1960s, the production of the Beijing People’s Machine Factory gradually became stereotyped, becoming the largest professional manufacturer of typographers in China, as well as the Shanghai People’s Machine Factory. The newly-built Hunan Printing Machine Factory in 1969 also engaged in typographic printing machines. Production. After entering the 1970s, China has initially possessed the manufacturing capabilities of automatic paper-feeding offset printers, and various types of copiers have been continuously supplying printers. By the late 1970s, China's large and medium-sized printing presses were mainly domestically-made typographic printers. In the typographic printing presses, monochromatic and bi-color automatic printing made after the 1960s was used again. The main machine. Old-fashioned hand-to-paper offset printers and "soil-auto" offset printers were gradually replaced and transferred to small township printing plants (Figure 23-7).

0849.gif (39730 bytes) Coloring book 23-7

Third, the rise of lithographic printing

Before the 1960s, the printing of books and periodicals used lithography in addition to pictorials, albums, and comic books, and almost all the printing of ordinary texts was dominated by letterpress printing.

1. The start of lithographic printing Since the use of phototypesetting, the situation has begun to change. After photo-filming out the film, it can be used as a photosensitive resin plate for relief printing or as a lithographic printing plate for plain printing. The latter is more convenient. In the more developed countries of the printing industry, there is a certain basis for the printing of plain images. Once the technique of photosetting is solved, it is a matter of course that phototypesetting is a matter of printing.

China's phototypesetting printing presses (referred to as photoprinting) started in the 1970s. The earliest introduction of phototypesetting was the 7122 Factory and the Beijing Foreign Language Printing Factory. In order to solve the problem of "difficulty in publishing books" that was commonly found in book printing companies, China Printing Materials Corporation and China Institute of Printing Science and Technology were entrusted by the State Publishing Bureau. In June 1978, they successively held lithographic printing on-site meetings in Shenyang and Beijing. At the meeting, the experience of the 7112 Factory and Beijing Foreign Language Printing Factory was introduced. The meeting held that according to the New Technology of photocopying and lithography, the lead operation was completely eliminated, the working conditions of the workers were improved, the process flow was shortened, the progress of the book was accelerated, and a new one was opened up to solve the problem of “difficulty in publishing books”. way.

In June 1981, China Printing Corporation, China Printing Materials Corporation and China Institute of Printing Science and Technology jointly held a national experience of the exchange of lithographic printing experiences in Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province. On the basis of summing up experience, we will further promote the advanced experience of photosetting and printing.

2. Typesetting typesetting of movable type printing Into the eighties, there were new developments in lithographic printing. Photolithography is not only used for lithography, but typesetting can also be lithographically printed. The specific approach is: after typesetting, use a very thin goose paper on the ball shock proofing machine to print samples, after processing, the proof paper blanks are transparent, the graphic area because of the black ink, you can also directly lithography on the lithography Plate printing. In the case that it is difficult to replace the typesetting of movable type at the time of photosetting, the movable typesetting and ball shock proofing lithographic printing may also be an expedient transitional method.

3. Computer typesetting lithographic printing According to the lithographic printing of books, it has risen in China since the mid-1970s. After more than 10 years of development, it has gradually expanded from point to point. In particular, the widespread use of computer typesetting has accelerated this trend of development. By the early 1990s, photocopying had become an increasingly important part of books and newspapers. By 1995, the share of lithographic printing in books had reached 72.1%, as shown in Table 23-4.

4. Photocopying is a systematic project. Printing from movable typeset letterpress printing to phototypesetting lithographic printing is not only a process change, but also a new system engineering. First of all, it needs the mechanical equipment of computer typesetting machine and web double-sided typographic printing machine. It also needs the supply of photosensitive materials. Secondly, letterpress printing paper has always been used with letterpress paper, and instead of printing with flat printing, letterpress paper does not have the ability to print in plain printing. For this reason, China's papermaking industry has created conditions for the promotion of the new process of photoprinting, printing, and calligraphy, and soon produced a flat-printed book and periodical paper suitable for flat-press printing.

Table 23-4 Statistics of lithographic printing from 1981 to 1995

Year Rotary Typographic Printing Machine (Taiwan) Books and Periodicals Printing Total Production (Millions of Representations) Lithographed Printing Total Production (Million Remarks) Lithographed Printing Percentage of All Publications (%) 1981 1896.443.62.31982331916.1103.55.41983542042.9147.07.2198482

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