Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is a new technology that has been widely used in recent years. This technology is widely used in various application fields such as electronic payment, identification and information transmission, thus promoting further integration in the fields of telecommunications, banking, transportation, etc., bringing convenience to people's lives.
NFC applications are divided into industry applications and personal applications.
As shown in Figure 1, industry applications such as credit cards, e-tickets, access cards, e-wallets, etc., personal applications to meet people's daily needs, can be applied to clothing, food, housing, work and entertainment.
At present, there are many widely used NFC services in China, but they are all in each group. Each application needs to establish a separate system, such as unit access card, bus card, ETC (Electronic Toll Collection). Each set of separate applications must have a system in place. Every time an NFC application is used, the user needs to bring a card or a device, which brings a lot of inconvenience to the user.
The mobile communication terminal has the advantage of integrating the NFC application, the wireless network can provide the information for any application and any place, and the security mechanism of the mobile communication system can also be used by the NFC service, especially the smart card used in the mobile communication terminal, which is NFC. The implementation of the business in the mobile terminal provides a lot of practical mechanisms.
2 Smart card and NFC business
The mobile communication terminal, which is the mobile phone we often say, has the unique advantage to become the carrier of the NFC service user side, mainly reflected in the following three aspects: First, many people have mobile phones, and the NFC business user side module is implanted into the mobile phone. Second, the mobile phone is a wireless communication terminal, NFC is also a kind of wireless communication, the NFC device is placed on the mobile phone, and some devices and devices such as an antenna and a radio frequency part can be shared; third, the mobile phone The user identification module is a powerful smart card that provides functions such as authentication and accounting in mobile communication. In addition, some new technologies in the smart card, such as GP (GlobalPfalf0rm), can manage applications and provide installation for applications. Download, delete and other functions, and these features can meet some of the needs of NFC. Therefore, the NFC method discussed in this paper is built into the mobile communication terminal and is based on the implementation of the smart card.
The main function of the smart card is the user's authentication and authentication. The subnet is called the SlM (Subsc riber Identity Module) card used in the 2G GSM network. The USIM (Universal Subscriber Identity Module) is used in the 3G UMTS. Identification module) card. The SfM card and the USIM card are important entities for network authentication authentication. Since the storage of private data and the calculation of security processes are performed in the smart card, there is a high degree of security, which can provide a high level of security mechanism for applications such as NFC.
The smart card used in the telecommunications field has 8 contacts, but generally only 6 of them are used in daily use. The remaining two contacts are generally reserved, and the NFC service can utilize the two reserved contacts. Antenna connection.
As an important technology for smart cards. GP (GIObaI Platfo rm ) provides an effective solution for smart cards to support multiple applications. The GP standardization organization was established in January 1999 by VISA International. Its goal is to reduce the barriers brought by the growth of cross-industry and multi-application smart cards, and smart card publishers will be free to choose cards, terminals and backgrounds according to IEl. system. The organization was established with the rise of smart cards. Many industries, such as banks, public transportation, mobile communications, etc., use smart cards for electronic consumption or authentication, which may result in users needing to carry many cards. The GP provides a solution for integrating multiple applications on a single card for portability and cost reduction.
After the introduction of GP, the roles associated with smart cards are:
â—† Application Provider: An organization that owns an application and is responsible for the behavior of the application;
â—† Card issuer: An institution that owns a card and ultimately is responsible for the behavior of the card;
â—† card user;
â—† Out-of-card entity: A terminal that communicates with the card to complete session communication:
â—† Certification Control Authority: A third party outside the card issuer and application developer can provide a security domain for identity authentication and download applications;
â—† Application: As part of the software, its role is to achieve certain functions on the card.
The basic services provided by GP include:
â—† Dynamic management card space: download, install, and delete applications that carry different security requirements through different security domains;
â—† Card and application lifecycle management: manage the lifecycle status of cards and applications through the registry;
â—† Distribution of card commands: Commands are distributed through card management, which is equivalent to adding a layer of filtering. Provides a security guarantee;
â—† Card Key Management: Manage key sub-component IDs. Different security domains also manage a key set of the security domain to provide different levels of security management.
GP's introduction of smart cards provides an effective means for managing and scheduling multiple applications. By implementing multiple NFC services on a mobile phone, we are pursuing the goal. We hope to use a mobile phone to implement card swiping and access control. , bus, etc., rather than carrying multiple cards or multiple devices as in the past. It can be said that GP provides an effective bridge and link for providing multiple NFC services for smart cards. But unfortunately, the current multi-application management of GP applied to smart cards is rare in China. Many manufacturers use self-developed mechanisms for managing multiple applications.
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